Forests represent an immense resource, providing a number of ecosystem services from wood and non-wood production, protection of biodiversity, provision of habitats, clean water supply, soil protection, climate regulation and recreation essential for human well-being.

Climate change and atmospheric pollution with nitrogen and heavy metals as well as ozone formation may affect ecosystem functioning and jeopardize the provision of ecosystem services, requiring continuous long-term monitoring of ecosystem components and processes to assess status and predict future development of European forests.

Since 1985, ICP Forests monitors forest condition and environmental drivers across Europe. The data is used by a large number of scientists investigating various policy relevant research questions and scenarios.